Types of project management

What is a Project?

A project can be defined as a related set of activities that have starting and ending point, that results in a unique service or product.


A project may be:

⮞ Design only;

⮞ Construction only; or

⮞ A combination of design & construction


A project consists of three components:

Scope: the work to be accomplished (quantity & quality of work). Quality is the responsibility of all participants in a project to meet the needs of the owner and users of the project. It includes creating drawings with a minimum number of errors, furnishing equipment that meets specifications, and building a project to fulfill the requirements of a contract

Budget: It is the amount of money the owner will spend on the project

Schedule: the logical sequencing and timing of work to be performed


A balance is, therefore, necessary between the scope, budget, & schedule

 

Types of Management

  1. Discipline Management; and
  2. Project Management

Discipline Management (Functional management): it involves the coordination of repeated work of a similar nature by the same people

Examples: management of a department of design engineering, surveying, estimating, or purchasing


Project Management: it involves the coordination of one-time-work by a team of people who often have never previously worked together

Examples: management of the design and/or construction of a shopping center, refinery unit, water treatment plant, office building, etc. 


The project manager must:

  1. Develop a good working relationship with people
  2. Organize the project team.
  3. Have good communication skills
  4. Coordinate people and information

A good project manager is a good communicator

 

Functions of Management

  1. Planning
  2. Organizing
  3. Staffing
  4. Directing
  5. Controlling

 

1.Planning

  • Starts with the scope of work and continues throughout the life of the project
  • Involves several milestones & constraints
  • Requires the participation of all parties

 

2.Organizing

  • It is fitting the project plan by arranging the resources in the best manner
  • Involves the preparation of a work breakdown structure (WBS): breakdown the work in a project into manageable units that are defined & measured (tasks, subtasks, and work packages)

 

3.Staffing

Because people is the most important resource in the project, the manager must select expertise individuals or companies which provide the knowledge to:

⮞ Design;

⮞ Coordinate; and

⮞ Construct the project

 

4.Directing

  • It is the guidance of the work required to complete a project
  • Involves the development of the project’s staff into an effective team
  • The work that is provided by each person must be collectively directed in a common effort and in a common direction

 

5.Controlling

⮞ It is the establishment of a system to measure, report, and forecast deviations in the project’s:

- Scope,
- Budget, and
- Schedule

⮞ Controlling is often the most difficult function of project management.

⮞ The purpose of project control is to:

Determine and predict deviations in a project:
Q. Why? A. To take corrective actions immediately

Continuously report information in a timely manner:
Q. Why? A. So that management can respond during the project

 

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