What is the source of the diamond mineral?

Diamond metal

Diamond is known as a rare mineral, and it consists of carbon, where the carbon atom is surrounded by four other carbon atoms connected by strong covalent bonds. , high dispersion, and high luster, these unique properties made this mineral one of the most popular gemstones in the world, and in this article it is discussed extensively about this mineral and its source.

Diamond mineral sources

Many people think that the source of diamonds is coal, but this information is wrong; There is no role for coal in the formation of diamonds, as most of the diamonds that have been dated are older than the first land plants on the surface of the earth, which are considered sources of coal. As for the real sources of natural diamonds, there are four that can be summarized as follows:

Deep volcanic eruptions

Geologists believe that diamonds are formed in the mantle under very high temperatures and pressures, and are transported to the Earth's surface through deep volcanic eruptions that leave behind tubes called kimberlite and lambroite tubes, which diamond prospectors are looking for. In the area of ​​diamond stability, where diamonds and pieces of stones are pulled very quickly to the surface, and these stones are called (in English: xenoliths) and may be loaded with diamonds.

Ocean sediments

Small diamonds were found in the rocks that were subducted into the mantle layer and formed what is called the subduction zone due to the movements of the tectonic plates, where one of the convergent plates slides from each other forcibly into the mantle layer, and because it fell down, it will be exposed to an increase in pressure and temperature, and this type of rock Very rare, and if any, it is not suitable for commercial use.

Asteroid collision

Diamonds are found in and around the craters and craters resulting from the collision of asteroids with the Earth's surface, so that they produce tremendous force, pressure and very high temperatures upon impact. These conditions are sufficient to form diamonds, especially if the target rocks contain carbon. For example, diamonds were found in Bubigai Crater in northern Siberia, Russia, plus a small diamond was found in Meteor Crater in Arizona.


NASA researchers have found large numbers of nanodiamonds in some meteorites, so that 3 percent of the carbon in these meteorites turns into these diamonds, and it is believed that these diamonds were formed in space during high-speed collisions and other powerful events, These diamonds are very small and are used as gemstones or synthetic abrasives, for example, Smithsonian researchers found large numbers of small diamonds when they cut a sample from the Allen Hills meteorite.

Countries that produce diamonds

There are seven countries that have led the world in producing diamonds for more than a decade over time, they produce nearly more than one million carats annually, and they are, according to the amount of production: Russia, Botswana, Canada, Angola, South Africa, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Namibia, and there A group of other countries that produce less than one million carats annually and control the market less than the previous group, and they are, according to the quantity of production: Australia, Ghana, Guinea, Guyana, Lesotho, Sierra Leone, Togo, and Zimbabwe. [3]

Diamond stone quality

The Gemological Institute of America has developed a standard method for assessing the quality of a diamond, and the method is known as The 4Cs of Diamond Quality. The 4Cs are due to the following factors:

Color, cut, clarity, and carat weight, where the quality and quality of a diamond is determined by these four factors as follows: 

Color: High-quality diamonds range in color between yellow and colorless, but colorless diamonds are more valuable and more expensive, and there is a category of diamonds that is getting more and more popular, which are colored stones in colors such as red, pink, yellow, purple, blue, and green. The value of these stones is determined based on the intensity, purity and quality of the color.

Clarity: A perfect diamond is free from fractures, inclusions, and foreign particles within it; This reduces the appearance of the stone, in addition to interfering with the passage of light through the stone, and when present in large quantities, dark colors, and obvious places or sizes, will reduce the quality of the stone and reduce its value in addition to reducing the strength of the stone itself.

Cutting: What determines the appearance of a diamond is the craftsmanship used in cutting the diamond in addition to the quality of the design. The perfect diamond stone is well polished, in addition to the equal size of the faces, and their conformity in shape The edges of each face exactly coincide with the edges of the adjacent faces.

Other uses for diamonds

Diamonds are not only used for jewelry and ornaments, but they have other uses that we will learn about as follows:

  • It is used as an abrasive, due to the extreme hardness of diamond.
  • Thin diamond film windows, which are used to cover the slots of laser machines, X-ray machines, and vacuum chambers, are transparent, durable and resistant to heat and corrosion.
  • Manufacture of heat sinks, which are materials that absorb or transfer excess heat. Diamond has a very high thermal conductivity for any material. It is also used to transfer heat away from high-performance, heat-sensitive microelectronics parts.
  • Manufacture of wear-resistant parts, by coating the surfaces with a very thin layer of diamond, which is converted into steam that sticks to the surface to be protected from wear.

  • Sources:
  • geology, www.geology.com, Retrieved 31-08-2017. Edited.

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